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No more junk DNA in our Genome

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A very large section of the human genome which once mentioned that have no useful function and named as “junk DNA” but have a key role in biochemical processes, just found.

According to genetics, only 2% of the total human genome code for proteins and the rest of the genome are noncoding and so named as junk DNA or introns. They had no biological function also. Then why this junk DNA is present in our genome? To find this type of questions answer scientists were researching for a long time. And now they are able to understand some of its role in our genome.


Scientists have found these sequences are playing very important role in our biological functions.                                          Fig: Junk DNA

For example, though junk DNA sequences can’t encode for proteins but some of them act as ‘genetic switches’ which can regulate when and where a particular gene may express in what amount. That means these junk DNA sequences are required for regulatory purpose. So in our genome they are acting as regulatory genetic networks.

Some of them may essential for maintain chromosome structure, centromere function and also for regulation of homolog during meiosis cell division.

Other junk DNA sequences involve in determining where the regulatory factors (such as transcription factors) may attach.

These sequences are also capable to compile mutations more rapidly than coding sequences of genome. And a surprising result noticed from a genome-wide association study which was done to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated diseases like diabetes. Where scientists tried to find out the single gene defect from coding DNA sequences. But it was not found within coding regions of the genome. And scientists discover that the SNPs occur in those areas where large number of junk DNA sequence elements is present.

That means though junk DNA sequences are not directly impact on protein coding but may involve with gene regulation and single gene associated diseases also.

Written by mini

February 22nd, 2014 at 3:29 am

Posted in Science Column

Not to Forget Tips for Choosing Fishing Kayaks

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Introduction: Kayak Fishing is gaining popularity at a very rapid pace as the sport not only provides fun, but also unleashes a whole new world of adventure to the person who is fishing in the kayak. Also, the kayaks that are being made nowadays are built in a fashion that enables it to withstand the various roughest patches of water, or huge whirlpools.

It was long in the pages of history when going for fishing would have meant sitting by the side of the pool and wait for fish to gulp your bait. In recent days there has been a huge change in the concept of fishing and one of the most popular modes is kayak fishing. However, when someone wants to use a kayak, it is very important that he or has the tips for choosing fishing kayaks.

fishing kayak

The various types available:

There are many types of kayaks based on the type of water body that one may want to go out into for fishing. These basic types are:

  • Whitewater kayaks: To be used for fast moving rivers, specially found in the mountains.
  • Recreation and touring kayaks: To be used in still and flat waters, like lakes, bays or even slow moving rivers).
  • Sea kayaks: To be used when fishing expedition is to be done in the open ocean.

The basic tips for choosing fishing kayaks would include the following items:

The material is the first thing to be checked

Check out the material with which the kayak is made of. The mostly used materials that are being used for a kayak are plastic, Kevlar, fiberglass, wood, carbon, inflatable plastic and fabric with frame. While plastic is the heaviest, it is more damage resistant in nature. More efficient option in water would be kayaks made out of fiberglass.

Materials which are more exotic and light in nature like Kevlar or carbon although are lighter, however they are costly too. Wood made kayaks are very attractive but nowadays are very rare to be found. Inflatable kayaks are somewhat the most suited choice for conditions like whitewater or surfing. They are not only portable in nature, but also the fear of damage is much less in these kayaks.

Boat Length is the second thing

The efficiency of a kayak is directly proportional to the length of the boat. The longer the boat is, the more efficient it will be in water in terms of maneuvering and speed. Also, more length would mean more boat space which will able to accommodate your provisions. Choosing the best fishing kayak with right length is one of the important tips for choosing fishing kayaks.

fishing kayak

Check the paddles as well

During kayaking, the human body is the engine and the paddles serve as the connection of the engine and the water. It is very important that paddles are lightweight, yet durable enough to withstand the strong forces of water. Also investing in a paddle leash may prove beneficial during tough times.

Boat weight is never to be ignored

Last but not the least, the final of the tips for choosing fishing kayaks is the weight of the kayak. It needs to be ensured that the boat is not very heavy as it is you who has to carry the boat in and off the water. Also a heavy boat would mean more energy wasted in paddling.

With these tips for choosing fishing kayaks, getting hold of the right kayak would become very easy and the experience of kayak fishing would become more exciting.

Written by mini

February 22nd, 2014 at 3:19 am

Posted in Sport Column

Best Top 3 foods for hair loss

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Scientific research has been working on alopecia which is hair loss for quite some time now. This condition affects quite a large number of people on the planet making them lose their hair volumes and eventually the hair itself.

One of the most recent discoveries on hair loss has shown a direct correlation between the loss of hair and the dietary intake of the person. There are certain foods that encourage the growth of healthy and strong hair. Conversely, there are also certain foods that have been shown to discourage the growth of hair and increase chances of hair loss. Because of these facts, lots of people are trying to change their habits like using natural shampoo or eating organic food.

Here we focus on the best three natural foods for preventing hair loss.

  1. 1.       Salmon

This fish is packed with omega three fatty acids. Omega three fatty acids are found in the cell membranes of the cells that make up your scalp skin. Furthermore, omega three fatty acids are also found in the natural oils that keep your hair and scalp hydrated. Omega three fatty acids are also found in the shafts of your hair. This means that salmon which is quite rich in these omega three fatty acids is quite good for your hair. It will help the hair to grow strong and healthy and prevent future cases of hair loss.

Salmon is also quite rich in protein and vitamin D. Protein and Vitamin D are essential to the growth of healthy and strong hair.



  1. 2.       Fowl

As if fowl making for some tasty meals was not good enough, turns out that our feathery friends are quite good for your hair. Poultry contains a significant amount of proteins, iron, zinc, and B vitamins making it one of the best hair loss prevention foods on the planet. Furthermore, if you use natural shampoo products which has various vitamins, its effectiveness would be double.

Protein is essential for the growth of healthy hair because it forms the basic building blocks of hair. Hair is essentially made up of protein so consuming enough of it makes for better, stronger, and healthier hair. Zinc and iron are mineral elements that are essential to the production of hair. These trace elements are required during the growth of hair and increasing your intake of them will lead to better hair growth. They will assist you to increase not just volume but strength as well as sheen of the hair.


  1. 3.       Spinach

This leafy vegetable is one of the healthiest vegetables you can consume. Spinach is packed with nutrients such as iron, folate, beta carotene, and Vitamin C all of which help keep your scalp and hair healthy.

Iron is needed for production of blood and low intake can lead to deficiencies such as anemia. It would surprise many to learn that good blood is essential to healthy hair. It has been noted that patients suffering from anemia usually have low volumes of unhealthy hair.

Beta carotene is processed by the body into vitamin A which is used in the production of sebum. Sebum lubricates the scalp and prevents hair from breaking off. Vitamin C is good for proper blood circulation to ensure that your scalp remains healthy.


Written by mini

February 22nd, 2014 at 3:08 am

Posted in Health Column